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1. Potential Difference vs EMF

You may previously have used the term 'voltage' but now you need to understand the difference between the EMF of a supply and the PD across a component. Please note that this analogy is not perfect, it doesn't really explain how energy can be transferred almost instantaneously or how alternating current works but it's a start...

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2. The Volt and W=QV

How can you define the volt?

  • '1 volt is the potential difference between two points when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb.' 


  • '1V is the PD across a component when 1 joule of energy is transferred per coulomb of charge passing through the component.'

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3. The Kinetic Energy of Electrons

The energy gained by charged particle moving through a potential difference can be converted into kinetic energy. This is the basis of old style TVs, oscilloscopes and also particle detectors.

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4. Kirchhoff's Second Law

This will help you to understand Kirchhoff's 2nd Law when you consider the conservation of energy in a circuit.

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